The Kampfwagen für Ausland mit verstärkter Panzerung, 4,5cm K L/50 und 2 MG also known as mittlerer Kampfwagen für Ausland (abbreviated as m.K.A.), was a German tank project that intended to create a medium tank for export. The vehicle was planned to be better than other vehicles that were available at the time, such as the Renault R35 or Vickers 6-ton Tank.
On 5 October 1936, the mittlerer Kampfwagen für Ausland (mKA) was mentioned in a meeting in Essen with Müller and Wölfert. The leichter Kampfwagen für Ausland (l.K.A.) would be developed to attempt to mount a 2cm gun and an MG in the same turret. The m.K.A. was to be an off-shoot of the l.K.A.
In a Kriegsmaterial Abteilung fiscal year report dated 1 October 1936 to 30 September 1937, Krupp stated that development had started on Auslands-Kampfwagen (tanks for foreign sale). These vehicles were to be lighter than vehicles developed for the German Army, as weight was considered an issue with exporting vehicles.
By 5 February 1937, Krupp changed their plans for the Auslands-Kampfwagen. The following vehicles were planned;
l.K.A. 1: a 4.5t light tank with two machine guns, named M.G. K.A.
l.K.A. 2: a 5.2t light tank with a 2cm cannon and one machine gun, named 2cm K.A.
A variant of the l.K.A. 2 with thicker armour, weighing 7t. Named 2cm K.A.v.
m.K.A.: a 7t medium tank, armed with a 4,5cm Kanone and two machine guns, named 4,5cm K.A.
A variant of the m.K.A. with thicker armour, weighing 10t. Named 4,5cm K.A.v.
s.K.A.: a heavy tank weighting 14t, armed with a 7,5cm Kanone and two machine guns. Named 7,5cm K.A.
On 17 March 1937, the changes made were confirmed in the forms below:
Each two vehicles were planned to share the same chassis. Stronger engines were considered if needed, a 90hp water-cooled Ford V8 was available for the l.K.A., with a water-cooled Maybach engine for the m.K.A. The engine for the s.K.A. was not chosen.
Armament discussions regarding the 4,5cm and 7,5cm Kanone resulted in the proposal for their muzzle velocity to be about 500m/s, the reasoning behind this was that combat ranges would rarely be over 1000m, and sufficient penetration can be expected from such a velocity within said range. Single-shot weaponry was also considered, due to the shortage of space inside the turret.
On 28 April 1937, the production plan was changed again during a meeting on the Kampfwagen Ausland Programm, attended by Hageloch, Müller, and Wölfert:
The meeting also discussed the proposed deadlines. The design work of the vehicle was to be completed by December 1937, and a test vehicle completed by June 1938. There was a 180/200HP Maybach engine that was being considered, however the Waffenamt hadn't released information about it at the time. Another meeting was to be held in October to discuss the future of the K.A.v. and the s.K.A. and whether they are to be built. Sketches were to be completed by 1 July 1937. The s.K.A. was considered to expensive for export. Trials of the engines available were to take place as well, in a dummy with the same conditions equivalent to use in a tank. The following names were given to the vehicles being produced for simplicity in the manufacturing firms;
The names that contained the weaponry (ex: 2cm K.A.) as opposed to the other names (ex: l.K.A. 2) were to be kept for correspondence with the Waffenamt and foreign nations.
On 3 June 1937, the characteristics of the m.K.A. were finalized (information is in the infobox above and to the right)
On 17 June 1937, Wa Prüf 6 decided that Krupp's design bureau (Krupp Konstruktionsbuero) was to be maintained at current size, but they were not given design contracts. Design work was to continue on the export vehicles, however it was decided whether they would be released for export, or it may be presented to the German Army for possible adoption. Oberstleutnant Phillips stated that Wa Prüf 6, like other Waffen Prüfen, supports development of products intended for export, and that they have no objections releasing the new motor to Krupp.
On 21 June 1937, Hageloch, Müller, and Wölfert met and decided that work would start and continue on the m.K.A. until further contracts were received by Wa Prüf 6. They decided to find another engine in case the engine from Maybach wasn't released. Completion of the first chassis was considered possible for March 1938.
On 10 August 1937, Hageloch and Wölfert met with Oberstleutnant Phillips, head of Wa Prüf 6, to discuss the release of the Maybach HL 76 motor.
On 4 October 1937, Krupp started developing a 45mm semi-automatic cannon with an L/50 (2.250m) barrel length. The gun weighed 1,385kg, it had a muzzle velocity of 750m/s. Armour penetration was 40mm @ 1000m/90°. Design of the cannon were to be completed by 20 October 1937, turret design completed by March 1938, and a turret produced by 1 August 1938.
On 7 October 1937, the Heereswaffenamt sent Krupp a list of restrictions on the design of tanks for export purposes.
Only a straight monocular or fixed angular telescopic gunsight (such as the Ceha - telescope from Askania), or a periscope gunsight without removable head can be used.
Slip ring contacts are allowable for conducting electricity to the turret.
Visors for vision ports can have internal hinges but cannot have overlapping edges exceeding 1mm wide. Additional locks are not to be used.
Rigidly mounted protective glass up to 12mm thick is allowed behind the vision slits. The slits are to be cut into flat visor plates and are not allowed to be less than 5.5mm wide. External ridges to protect the vision slits are to be sloped at less than 4 degrees.
Sealing frames for the visors are not to have rubber inserts. Armour plates for covering the vision slits are not to be delivered.
The detailed design of the gun mantle is to be presented for approval on a case-by-case basis. It can be patterned after the first model of the gun mantle for the PzKpfw I.
Rigidly mounted rod antenna without springs or rigid frame antenna are allowable.
If a radio is requested, expanding rubber stripes are allowable in the mounting.
All types of hinges are to be made out of normal steel, not armour.
It is allowable to use the model of traversing gear for the PzKpfw I. Steel cables are to be used as a connecting linkage for firing the machineguns.
Only a single ball-bearing race can be used for the turret mounting.
Only normal bolts with heads or countersunk can be used.
The turret design must be either round with 10 degree sloping sides or a symmetrical truncated pyramid shape.
The German model for mounting an anti-aircraft machinegun is not to be used.
End of Development & Trial Model
On 9 October 1937, Oberstleutnant Phillips sent a letter to Krupp about their decision to not approve the 4,5cm K.A.v. (m.K.A.) design for export. The reasoning was the armour plates armour plates thicker than 13mm (to protect against armour piercing 7.92mm rounds), and the engine compartment and cooling system closely match the latest methods used for the latest tanks fielded by the German Army, of which proved difficult and was costly to develop.
On 1 February 1938, Hageloch, Müller, and Wölfert of Krupp met to discuss the status of the trial vehicles. They decided that they would continue development on the trials, ignoring the previous message from the Waffenamt. The road wheel mounts were to be designed like the l.K.A. 2, however the patent application for the m.K.A. roadwheels mounts were to be declared secret, as requested by the Waffenamt.
The gun needs to be completed and fired by the 1st of September 1938, the trial vehicle without a turret is to be completed in September 1938, and the turret completed by December 1938. The vehicle was tested in early 1939, with good results. The turret for the K.A.v. started production in late 1939, but it is unknown whether it was completed.
The vehicle did not enter production, and Krupp moved on to other projects.
Germany (Deutsches Reich) Land Vehicles 1919 - 1945